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Basic Song Theory Part 3

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As a teacher I am often asked how are songs made?

Songs use many techniques that I will discuss over the next few months.

 

 

Using the 3 note chords created from the C Major Scale below play their chords in the common progression (sequence) listed below.

 

 

I    = C major = C, E, G  also called Root, third and fifth.

ii   =    D minor   = D, F, A

iii  =    E minor   =  E, G, B

IV =    F major   =  F, A, C

V  =    G major   =  G, B, D

vi   =   A minor   = A, C, E

viio =  B diminished  = B, D, F

 

 

 

 

 

1.  I //// //// IV //// ////

2.  I //// V //// I //// //// I //// V //// I ////     

3.  I //// IV //// V ////

4.  I //// IV //// V //// IV ////

5.  I //// V //// IV ////

6.  I //// V //// IV //// V ////

7.  IV //// I //// V //// I ////

 

//// = hash marks are quarter notes 

or one strum per line /

 

Now record these progressions with a metronome or drum machine and play the C major scale live to chords to experiment creating instrumental and vocal melodies.

It is important to memorize these chords in all possible positions on the fret board and or the keyboard. Later transpose to all keys (twelve notes fifteen written keys).

Now transpose these to each position (register) of your instrument, then to all 15 keys.



All materials copyright 2016. For personal use only.

Vince Lauria Sun and Earth Music

Basic Song Theory Part 2

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Remember to get your free beginning electric guitar lesson at: www.prontoguitar.com


Family of chords - song writing 101

 

As a teacher I am often asked how are songs made?

Songs use many techniques that I will discuss over the next few months.

First I will explain the harmonized major scale.

Using just the notes of the C major scale lets see how the family of chords are created.

First the notes of C major  

        C       D        E       F       G       A       B       C 

C major scale.png


By taking every other note in a group of three notes this creates chords. We do this for each note (scale degree) in the major scale. (Also we use large and small roman numerals for each position of the scale so that one number system works for all fifteen written keys). Starting with the first note of C major, take C (skip D) take E (skip F) take G.

See below:


I    =     C major   = C, E G  also called Root, third and fifth.

ii   =     D minor   = D, F, A

iii  =     E minor   =  E, G, B

IV =      F major   =  F, A, C

V  =     G major   =  G, B, D

vi   =    A minor   = A, C, E

viio =   B diminished  = B, D, F

 

maj = major or 

 

small m = minor also -  (hyphen)

o means diminished

 

These chord types (major, minor, diminished) stay exactly in the same relative sequence in all keys. Just the root or starting note changes. More on this later.

 

The chords below are created from the notes in the C major scale. 

 

 

C, E, G =  C maj

D, F, A  =  Dm

E, G, B =   Em

F, A, C =   F maj

G, B, D =  G maj

A ,C, E =   Am

B, D, F =   Bo

C, E, G =  C major

 

It is important to memorize these chords in all possible positions on the fret board and or the keyboard. Later transpose to all keys (twelve notes fifteen written keys).

Now transpose these to each position (register) of your instrument, then to all 15 keys.



All materials copyright 2010. For personal use only.

Vince Lauria Sun and Earth Music

Basic Song Theory Part 1

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These lessons are made for any instrument and you must have a basic knowledge of note values and basic chords, major, minor, diminished and dominant. Learning this will make you a better song writer!



C Major Scale number formula, steps, interval relationship and note names.

 

C  Major Scale:

C, D, E, F, G, A, B and C again.  

 

C to D is a whole step. WS

It is also a major second.

 

D to E is a whole step.  WS

It is also a major second.

 

E to F is a half step.  HS

It is a minor second.

 

F to G is a whole step.  WS

It is also a major second.

 

G to A is a whole step.  WS

It is also a major second.

 

A to B is a whole step.  WS

It is also a major second.

 

B to C is a half step.  HS

It is a minor second.

 

 

 

 

 

Here's the breakdown:

 

C to D is a WS is also a major second interval. 

The step formula gives a scale its sound

(WS, WS, HS, WS, WS, WS, HS)

note to note relationship or structure.

 

The number formula is the entire sequence.

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8/1/R

The point is to view a scale in three ways.

 

Number formula= 1/R, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 (octave). The Number formula is all the notes

sequentially. Shortcut to define and memorize.

 

 

Step formula=whole step, whole step, half step, whole step, whole step, whole step and half step.

Note to note relationship.

 

Interval distances= major second, major second,

minor second, major second, major second,

major second and minor second.

Note to note relationships.

 

Remember!

Every Major Scale has the exact same note relationship and structure. All 15 keys.



All materials for personal use only.

Copyright © 2016 Sun and Earth Music

Any unauthorized broadcasting; public performance, copying or re-recording 

will constitute an infringement of copyright. All rights reserved

 

Get one on one Skype lessons from Vince Lauria

Email vlvegas@msn.com or call 702-262-7862

Understanding Note Values

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Note values p.1 .png
Note values p.2 .png

All materials for personal use only.

Copyright © 2015 Sun and Earth Music

Any unauthorized broadcasting; public performance, copying or re-recording 

will constitute an infringement of copyright. All rights reserved

 

Get one on one Skype lessons from Vince Lauria

Email vlvegas@msn.com or call 702-262-7862

 

<a href="https://www.thumbtack.com/nv/las-vegas/guitar-lessons/guitar-bass-guitar-music-instruction">Banjo Instruction</a>



Below is an example of combining the Am pentatonic scale with the A Natural Minor Power chords.     Memorize melody and then create five or more variations of your own.

A Minor Pentatonic Scale played with A Natural Minor Chord progression. 

The Pentatonic Scale is an easy to play - must know scale.

It is used to solo for Rock and Blues and many other musical styles.

The following chord progression is shown on the treble staff and guitar tab.      

Learn as is then create three variations of the chord progression and the 

Am Pentatonic scale melody.

Am Pentatonic Part V.png

The note to note intervals are the same for all keys. 

This applies to any string, octave, position. 

Repeat this same process for bass, piano and any other instrument.

 

All materials for personal use only.

Copyright © 2015 Sun and Earth Music

Any unauthorized broadcasting; public performance, copying or re-recording 

will constitute an infringement of copyright. All rights reserved

 

Get one on one Skype lessons from Vince Lauria

Email vlvegas@msn.com or call 702-262-7862

 

<a href="https://www.thumbtack.com/nv/las-vegas/guitar-lessons/guitar-bass-guitar-music-instruction">Banjo Instruction</a>


Below is an example of combining the Am pentatonic scale with the A Natural Minor Power chords.     Memorize melody and then create five or more variations of your own.

A Minor Pentatonic Scale played with A Natural Minor Chord progression. 

The Pentatonic Scale is an easy to play - must know scale.

It is used to solo for Rock and Blues and many other musical styles.

The following chord progression is shown on the treble staff and guitar tab.      

Learn as is then create three variations of the chord progression and the 

Am Pentatonic scale melody.

Am Pentatonic Part IV  P.1 .png

Am Pentatonic Part IV  P.2 .png

Am Pentatonic Part IV  P.3 .png

The note to note intervals are the same for all keys. 

This applies to any string, octave, position. 

Repeat this same process for bass, piano and any other instrument.

 

All materials for personal use only.

Copyright © 2015 Sun and Earth Music

Any unauthorized broadcasting; public performance, copying or re-recording 

will constitute an infringement of copyright. All rights reserved

 

Get one on one Skype lessons from Vince Lauria

Email vlvegas@msn.com or call 702-262-7862

 

<a href="https://www.thumbtack.com/nv/las-vegas/guitar-lessons/guitar-bass-guitar-music-instruction">Banjo Instruction</a>

Below is an example of combining the Am pentatonic scale with the A Natural Minor Power chords.     Memorize melody and then create five or more variations of your own.

A Minor Pentatonic Scale played with A Natural Minor Chord progression. 

The Pentatonic Scale is an easy to play - must know scale.

It is used to solo for Rock and Blues and many other musical styles.

The following chord progression is shown on the treble staff and guitar tab.      

Learn as is then create three variations of the chord progression and the 

Am Pentatonic scale melody.

 Am pent Part III.png


The note to note intervals are the same for all keys. 

This applies to any string, octave, position. 

Repeat this same process for bass, piano and any other instrument.

 

All materials for personal use only.

Copyright © 2015 Sun and Earth Music

Any unauthorized broadcasting; public performance, copying or re-recording 

will constitute an infringement of copyright. All rights reserved

 

Get one on one Skype lessons from Vince Lauria

Email vlvegas@msn.com or call 702-262-7862

 

<a href="https://www.thumbtack.com/nv/las-vegas/guitar-lessons/guitar-bass-guitar-music-instruction">Banjo Instruction</a>

A Minor Pentatonic Scale Chord Progression.

The Pentatonic Scale is an easy to play - must know scale.

It is used to solo for Rock and Blues and many other musical styles.

The following chord progression is written on the treble staff and guitar tab. Learn as is then create three of your own chords progressions.

Am Pentatonic Chords Blog Part II.png


The note to note intervals are the same for all keys. 

This applies to any string, octave, position. 

Repeat this same process for bass, piano and any other instrument.

 

All materials for personal use only.

Copyright © 2015 Sun and Earth Music

Any unauthorized broadcasting; public performance, copying or re-recording 

will constitute an infringement of copyright. All rights reserved

 

Get one on one Skype lessons from Vince Lauria

Email vlvegas@msn.com or call 702-262-7862

 

 

 

<a href="https://www.thumbtack.com/nv/las-vegas/guitar-lessons/guitar-bass-guitar-music-instruction">Banjo Instruction</a>

A Minor Pentatonic Scale

The Pentatonic Scale is an easy to play - must know scale.

It is used to solo for Rock and Blues and many other musical styles.

A minor Pentatonic Scale - open position.png 


1. Play each note one at a time from low E to high thin E strings.

Use down picking only.

 

2. Play each note of scale 2 times each - using continuous down up picking.

Start Down picking.

ie: Down, Up, Down, Up, Down, Up, 

 

When changing strings start in the opposite direction from the last direction.

So if you did up picking start on down picking for next note of scale.

If you did down picking start on up picking.

 

3. This is much harder to do than it sounds!

So start slow and look at your picking hand

and make sure the picking direction is correct.

If you make a mistake - start one note before the mistake and continue.

Once comfortably gradually increase speed.


On staff and traditional guitar tab:

Am pentatonic scale on staff and tab.png

 

The note to note intervals are the same for all keys. 

This applies to any string, octave, position. 

Repeat this same process for bass, piano and any other instrument.

 

All materials for personal use only.

Copyright © 2015 Sun and Earth Music

Any unauthorized broadcasting; public performance, copying or re-recording 

will constitute an infringement of copyright. All rights reserved

 

Get one on one Skype lessons from Vince Lauria

Email vlvegas@msn.com or call 702-262-7862

 

 

 

<a href="https://www.thumbtack.com/nv/las-vegas/guitar-lessons/guitar-bass-guitar-music-instruction">Banjo Instruction</a>

Buy "Grab It" by Vince Lauria the key to soloing and song writing:
http://www.amazon.com/GRAB-IT-Vince-Lauria/dp/1478714476

C Blues Scale

ALL scales repeat the same pattern up and down in tone. 
C major scale: C, D, E, F, G, A, B and C. Numbers are given to correspond to the major scale degrees or positions.

C Major Scale: C=1/Root, D=2nd, E=3rd, F=4th, G=5th, A=6th, B=7th, C=8th/octave. 

C Blues Scale: C=1/Root, Eb=b3rd, F=4th, Gb=b5th, G=5th, Bb=b7, C=1/8 octave.

Memorize the C Blues Scale note names and number formula.
C Blues Scale - note names= C, Eb, F, Gb, G, Bb and C    
C Blues Scale - number formula= 1/R, b3rd, 4th, b5th, 5th, b7th and root/8. 

C,  Eb,  F,  Gb,  G   Bb,   C

1,  b3,  4,  b5,  5,  b7,  8/1.   

Now play and say out loud as you play the C Blues Scale.
Play the C note twice ascending and descending to memorize root note positions.
Create progressions using the C Blues Scale Family of Chords.
Each note of the scale is harmonized in three note chords (every other note). 
Blues Scale   blog.png
The note to note intervals are the same for all keys. This applies to any string, octave, position. 
Repeat this same process for bass, piano and any other instrument.

All materials for personal use only.
Copyright © 2014 Sun and Earth Music
Any unauthorized broadcasting; public performance, copying or re-recording 
will constitute an infringement of copyright. All rights reserved

Get one on one Skype lessons from Vince Lauria
Email vlvegas@msn.com or call 702-300-5925



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